4. Including the transactions covered by Article 51, paragraph 1. “a national of the United Kingdom,” a national of the United Kingdom as defined in the new statement of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland of 31 December 1982 on the definition of “nationals” (1) and Declaration 63 attached to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference that adopted the Lisbon Treaty (2); The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  The secretariat of the joint committee (the “secretariat”) is composed of a European Commission official and a UK government official. The secretariat, under the authority of the co-chairs, performs the functions entrusted to it by this internal regulation. (3) Third-country nationals and UK nationals can only cross the external borders of basic sovereign territories if they meet the following conditions: while the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.
 The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The following persons are covered by this title for the purpose of serving and aggregating periods of insurance, employment, self-employment or residence, including rights and obligations arising from these periods in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 883/2004: The United Kingdom implements a protection regime. This protection regime applies to a system of efficiency and coverage equivalent to that which the Community foresees in the United Kingdom, in accordance with the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with respect to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (INFCIRC/263), as amended.